A lot of research has gone into the development of the book, The Miracle Kidney Cleanse, in both the construction of the cleanse itself, as well as the education behind the role of the kidney and its related diseases and dysfunctions. If you would like to learn more about points made in the book, or how the suggested supplements, therapies, and foods influence the physiological of the kidney, then please refer to the references below.


Agne`s Narcy, Laetitia Robert, Andrzej Mazur, Christian Demigne´ and Christian. Effect of potato on acid – base and mineral homeostasis in rats fed a high-sodium chloride diet. Unite´ des Maladies Me´ taboliques et Micronutriments, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre de Clermont- Ferrand/Theix, 63 122 Saint-Gene` s Champanelle, France. British Journal of Nutrition (2006), 95, 925–932 DOI: 10.1079/BJN20061742

Koshy KM, Griswold E, Schneeberger EE: Interstitial nephritis in a patient taking creatine. N Engl J Med340 :814– 815,1999

Pritchard NR, Kalra PA: Renal dysfunction accompanying oral creatine supplements. Lancet351 :1252– 1253,1998

Poortmans JR, Auquier H, Renaut V, Durussel A, Saugy M, Brisson GR: Effect of short-term creatine supplementation on renal responses in men. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol76 :566– 567,1997

Poortmans JR, Francaux M: Long-term oral creatine supplementation does not impair renal function in healthy athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc31 :1108– 1110,1999

Robinson TM, Sewell DA, Casey A, Steenge G, Greenhaff PL: Dietary creatine supplementation does not affect some haematological indices, or indices of muscle damage and hepatic and renal function. Br J Sports Med 34 :284– 288, 2000

Reduced Dietary Salt for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials (Cochrane Review), American Journal of Hypertension, August 2011: 24(8); 843-53, R. S. Taylor, et al.

Fatal and Nonfatal Outcomes, Incidence of Hypertension, and Blood Pressure Changes in Relation to Urinary Sodium Excretion, Journal of the American Medical Association, 2011: 305(17); 1777-1785, Katarzyna Stolarz-Skrzypek, MD, et al.

The INTERSALT Study: Background, Methods, Findings, and Implications, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, February 1997: 65(2); 6265-6425, J. Stamler.

It’s Time to End the War on Salt, Scientific American, July 8, 2011: Melinda Wenner Moyer.

The Long Term Effects of Advice to Cut Down on Salt in Food on Deaths, Cardiovascular Disease, and Blood Pressure in Adults, Cochrane Summaries, January 21, 2009: L. Hooper, et al.

Sodium Intake and Mortality in the NHANES II Follow-Up Study, American Journal of Medicine, March 2006: 119(3); 275.e7-14, H. W. Cohen, et al.

Paleolithic Nutrition – A Consideration of Its Nature and Current Implications, New England Journal of Medicine, January 31, 1985: 312; 283-289, S. Boyd Eaton, M.D. and Melvin Konner, Ph.D.

Sodium and Potassium Intake and Mortality Among US Adults, Archives of Internal Medicine, July 2011: 171(13); 1183-1191, Quanhe Yang, PhD, et al.

Why Your Sodium-Potassium Ratio Is So Important, Huffpost Healthy Living, July 11, 2011: Mike Stobbe.

It’s Time to End the War on Salt, Scientific American, July 8, 2011: Melinda Wenner Moyer.

Linus Pauling institute, micronutrient research for optimal health “sodium chloride”

Clare, B. A., Conroy, R. S., and Spelman, K., “The diuretic effect in human subjects of an extract of Taraxacum officinale folium over a single day,” J. Ahern. Complement Med. (2009) Aug, 15(8): 929-34; and Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products, “Community Herbal Monograph on Taraxacum Officinale, Weber ex Wigg. Radix Cum Herba,” European Medicines Agency, London, 2009.)

Johnston, Carol S., and Cindy A. Gaas. “Vinegar: medicinal uses and antiglycemic effect.” Medscape General Medicine 8.2 (2006): 61.

Body Burden: The Pollution in Newborns – A benchmark investigation of industrial chemicals, pollutants and pesticides in umbilical cord blood Environmental Working Group, July 14, 2005.

Protein drinks, You don’t need the extra protein or the heavy metals our tests found. July 2010 Consumer Reports.

Itoh Y, Yasui T, Okada A, Tozawa K, Hayashi Y, Kohri K. Preventive effects of green tea on renal stone formation and the role of oxidative stress in nephrolithiasis.J Urol. 2005 Jan;173(1):271-5.

Al Jawad FH, Al Razzuqi RA, Al Jeboori AA. Apium graveolens accentuates urinary Ca +2 excretions in experimental model of nephrocalcinosis. Int J Green Pharm 2011;5:100-2

Khairunnisa Hasanudin, Puziah Hashim and Shuhaimi Mustafa. Corn Silk (Stigma Maydis) in Healthcare: A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review. Molecules 2012, 17, 9697-9715; doi:10.3390/molecules17089697

Abdul Wahid Shamki, Rawa Al-Chalabi i, Hayder Al-Amery. Effect of Corn Silk Extract on Kidney Stone Decomposition in Comparison With Alkalinizeragent (uralyte). International Journal of Health and Nutrition, Vol 3, No 2 (2012)

Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad, Rafi Abdul Majeed Al-Razzuqi, Zainab Awaen Al-Ebady, Thulfuqar Abdul Majeed Al-Razzuqi. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(2): 75-78. doi: 10.5455/jice.20120622035628

J.frias, Y.S. Song, C. Martinez-Villaluenda, E.G. De Mejia, C. Vidal-Valverde. Immunoreactivity and amino acid content of fermented soy beans. Journal of Agricultural and food chemistry. Volume 56 issue 1, pages 99-105.

Y.S Song, J. Frias, C. Martinez-Villaluenga, C. Vidal-Valdeverde and E.G. de Mejia. Immunoreactivity reduction of soybean meal by fermentation, effect on amino acid composition and antigenicity of commercial soy products. Food Chemistry – volume 108, issue 2, pages 571-581.

Deng Liangyue, Gan Yijun, He Shuhui, et al., 1996. Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion, 4th edition. Foreign Languages Press, Beijing.

Nigel Wiseman (tr), 1995. Fundamentals of Chinese Medicine, revised edition. Paradigm Publications, Brookline, Massachusetts.

UNSCEAR 2000 Report Vol. I Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation UNSCEAR 2000 Report to the General Assembly,with scientific annexes.

Martino TA, Oudit GY, Herzenberg AM, Tata N, Koletar MM, Kabir GM, Belsham DD, Backx PH, Ralph MR, Sole MJ. Circadian rhythm disorganization produces profound cardiovascular and renal disease in hamsters. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008 May;294(5):R1675-83. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00829.2007. Epub 2008 Feb 13.

Debbie Josefson. Kidney stones may be linked with sleep posture. BMJ. 2001 April 28; 322(7293): 1015.

Harvey Grady. Immunomodulation Through Castor Oil Packs. Journal of Naturopathic Medicine. Volume 7, Number 1 1999

Spiegel K, Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Impact of sleep debt on metabolic and endocrine function. Lancet. 1999 Oct 23;354(9188):1435-9.

Borhane Annabi, Ying-Ta Lee, Charles Martel, Anthony Pilorget, Jean-Paul Bahary and Richard Béliveau. Radiation Induced-Tubulogenesis in Endothelial Cells is Antagonized by the Antiangiogenic Properties of Green Tea Polyphenol (-) Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate. Cancer Biology and Therapy. Volume 2, Issue 6. November/December 2003

Lawrence Wilson, MD. Autonomic Nervous System Health. June 2008, The Center For Development.

Mary Beard, MPH; Hunter Heath,MD; W. Michael O’Fallon, PhD;Joseph A. Anderson; John D. Earle, MD; L. Joseph Melton, MD. TherapeuticRadiation and Hyperparathyroidism A Case-Control Study in Rochester, Minn. Arch Intern Med. 1989;149(8):1887-1890. doi:10.1001/archinte.1989.00390080135030.        

Antonia E. Stephen, Kathryn T. Chen, BS, Mira Milas, MD, Allan E. Siperstein, MD. The coming of age of radiation-induced hyperparathyroidism: Evolving patterns of thyroid and parathyroid disease after head and neck irradiation. Surgery. 2004 Dec;136(6):1143-53.

Bernhard O. Boehm, M.D. The Parathyroid as a Target for Radiation Damage. N Engl J Med 2011; 365:676-678. August 18, 2011 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc1104982

Prescription for Herbal Healing. Phyllis A. Balch.2002.

Curhan GC, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Stampfer MJ. Intake of vitamins B6 and C and the risk of kidney stones in women. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999 Apr;10(4):840-5.

Prien EL Sr, Gershoff SN. Magnesium oxide-pyridoxine therapy for recurrent calcium oxalate calculi. J Urol 1974;112:509-512. J Am Coll Nutr 1982;1:179-85.

Technical Data Report for CHANCA PIEDRA “Stone Breaker” (Phyllanthus niruri ).

European Association of Urology (2012, September 17). Kidney stone sufferers ‘double in a generation’. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 3, 2014, from­ /releases/2012/09/120917090024.htm

Robert W. Schrier. Marc E. De Broe. Renal Injury Due to Environmental toxins, drugs, and contrast agents. Atlas of Kidney Diseases. Chapter 11.

Hadley M. Wood, Daniel A. Shoskes. The role of nanobacteria in urologic disease. World Journal of Urology. February 2006, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 51-54

Wisam Al-Badr, and Kevin J. Martin. Vitamin D and Kidney Disease. CJASN. September 2008 vol. 3 no. 5 1555-1560

Dusso AS. Kidney disease and vitamin D levels: 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and VDR activation. Kidney inter., Suppl. 2011; 1: 136–141

Williams S, Malatesta K, Norris K. Vitamin D and chronic kidney disease. Ethn Dis. 2009 Autumn;19(4 Suppl 5):S5-8-11.

Epstein M. Aldosterone and the hypertensive kidney: its emerging role as a mediator of progressive renal dysfunction: a paradigm shift. J Hypertension 2001;19: 829-42.

Jaime Uribarri. Phosphorus Additives in Food and their Effect in Dialysis Patients. CJASN      August 2009. vol. 4 no. 8 1290-1292

González-Parra, Carolina Gracia-Iguacel, Jesús Egido, and Alberto. Phosphorus and Nutrition in Chronic Kidney Disease. International Journal of Nephrology

Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 597605, 5 pages doi:10.1155/2012/597605

Nussey S, Whitehead S. Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach. Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers; 2001.

Ha TK, Sattar N, Talwar D, Cooney J, Simpson K, O’Reilly DS, Lean ME. Abnormal antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid status in chronic renal failure. QJM. 1996 Oct;89(10):765-9.

Neuman I, Nahum H, Ben-Amotz A. Reduction of exercise-induced asthma oxidative stress by lycopene, a natural antioxidant. Asthma 68. Allergy. 2000 Dec;55(12):1184-9.

Baylis C. Nitric oxide deficiency in chronic kidney disease. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008 Jan;294(1):F1-9. Epub 2007 Oct 10.

Johansen KL. Exercise and chronic kidney disease: current recommendations. Sports Med. 2005;35(6):485-99.

Hiraki K, Kamijo-Ikemori A, Yasuda T, Hotta C, Izawa KP, Watanabe S, Sugaya T, Kimura K. Moderate-intensity single exercise session does not induce renal damage. J Clin Lab Anal. 2013 May;27(3):177-80. doi: 10.1002/jcla.21579.

Maddux DW, West C. The benefits of exercise for CKD patients. Nephrol News Issues. 2012 Nov;26(12):44, 46, 48.

Poortmans JR, Vanderstraeten J. Kidney function during exercise in healthy and diseased humans. An update. Sports Med. 1994 Dec;18(6):419-37.

Jacob RA, Spinozzi GM, Simon VA, Kelley DS, Prior RL, Hess-Pierce B, Kader AA. Consumption of cherries lowers plasma urate in healthy women. J Nutr. 2003 Jun;133(6):1826-9.

Ciftçioglu N, Björklund M, Kuorikoski K, Bergström K, Kajander EO. Nanobacteria: an infectious cause for kidney stone formation. Kidney Int. 1999 Nov;56(5):1893-8.

Souad E. El-Gengaihi1, Emad E. Hassan1, Manal A. Hamed2, Hanan G. Zahran2, & Mona A. Mohammed1 Chemical composition and nutritional effect of Physalis peruviana husk as hepato-renal protective agent. International Journal of Phytomedicine . 2012, Vol. 4 Issue 2, p229-236. 8p. 2

Uchiyama-Tanaka Y, Mori Y. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation on immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Ther Apher Dial. 2010 Jun;14(3):303-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-9987.2009.00791.x.

Sulikowska B, Niewegłowski T, Manitius J, Lysiak-Szydłowska W, Rutkowski B. Effect of 12-month therapy with omega-3 polyunsaturated acids on glomerular filtration response to dopamine in IgA nephropathy. Am J Nephrol. 2004 Sep-Oct;24(5):474-82. Epub 2004 Sep 1.

Chaudhary A, Mishra A, Sethi S. Oxidized omega-3 fatty acids inhibit pro-inflammatory responses in glomerular endothelial cells. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2004;97(4):e136-45.

Donadio JV Jr, Grande JP, Bergstralh EJ, Dart RA, Larson TS, Spencer DC. The long-term outcome of patients with IgA nephropathy treated with fish oil in a controlled trial. Mayo Nephrology Collaborative Group. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999 Aug;10(8):1772-7.

Tiselius, HG (2003). “Epidemiology and medical management of stone disease”. British Journal of Urology International 91 (8): 758–67.

Sidhu H, Allison MJ, Chow JM, Clark A, Peck AB. Rapid reversal of hyperoxaluria in a rat model after probiotic administration of Oxalobacter formigenes. J Urol 2001; 166: 1487–91

Lee YH, Huang WC, Tsai JY, Huang JK. The efficacy of potassium citrate based medical prophylaxis for preventing upper urinary tract calculi: a midterm follow-up study. J Urol 1999; 161: 1453–7

Abdulhadi MH, Hall PM, Streem SB. Can citrate therapy prevent nephrolithiasis? Urology 1993; 41: 221–4

Pak CYC, Fuller C. Idiopathic hypercitraturic calcium-oxalate nephrolithiasis successfully treated with potassium citrate. Ann Int Med 1986; 104: 33–7

Hofbauer J, Höbarth K, Szabo N, Marberger M. Alkaline citrate prophylaxis in idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate urolithiasis – a prospective randomised study. Br J Urol 1994; 73: 362–5

Preminger GM, Harvey JA, Pak CYC. Comparative efficacy of ‘specific’ potassium citrate therapy versus conservative management in nephrolithiasis of mild to moderate severity. J Urol 1985; 134: 658–61

Preminger GM, Sakhaee K, Pak CYC. Alkali action on the urinary crystallization of calcium salts: contrasting responses to sodium citrate and potassium citrate. J Urol 1988; 139: 240–2

Whalley NA, Meyers AM, Martins M, Margolius LP. Long-term effects of potassium citrate therapy on the formation of new stones in groups of recurrent stone formers with hypocitraturia. Br J Urol 1996; 78: 10–4

Hans-Göran Tiselius. Renal Stones: Aspects on Their Formation, Removal and Prevention : Proceedings of the Sixth European Symposium on Urolithiasis. Akademitryck AB, 1996

Barcelo P, Wuhl O, Servitge E, Rousaud A, Pak CY. Randomized double-blind study of potassium citrate in idiopathic hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis. J Urol. 1993 Dec;150(6):1761-4.

Loris Borghi, Tiziana Meschi, Ferdinando Amato, Angelo Briganti, Almerico Novarini, Alfredo Giannini

Urinary Volume, Water and Recurrences in Idiopathic Calcium Nephrolithiasis: A 5-year Randomized Prospective Study. The Journal of Urology, Volume 155, Issue 3, March 1996, Pages 839–843

Murakami K, Sasaki S, Okubo H, Takahashi Y, Hosoi Y, Itabashi M; Freshmen in Dietetic Courses Study II Group. Association between dietary fiber, water and magnesium intake and functional constipation among young Japanese women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 May;61(5):616-22. Epub 2006 Dec 6.

Chan CH, Diner WC, Fontenot E, Davidson BD. Randomized single-blind clinical trial of a rapid colonic lavage solution (Golytely) vs. standard preparation for barium enema and colonoscopy. Gastrointest Radiol. 1985;10(4):378-82.

Kim SH, Lee SE, Oh H, et al. The radioprotective effects of bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang: a prescription of traditional Chinese medicine astragalus. J Chin Med. 2002;30(1):127-137.

Shao BM, Xu W, Dai H, et al. A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;320(4):1103-1111.

Tian Sun, Hao Xu,and Fengqin Xu. Astragalus Injection for Hypertensive Renal Damage: A Systematic Review School. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 929025, 6 pages doi:10.1155/2012/929025

Sheng MX, Li JZ, Wang HY. Therapeutic effect of Astragalus and Angelica on renal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2001 Jan;21(1):43-6.

Ying-Wen Zhang, Chao-Yan Wu, Juei-Tang Cheng. Merit of Astragalus polysaccharide in the improvement of early diabetic nephropathy with an effect on mRNA expressions of NF-κB and IκB in renal cortex of streptozotoxin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 114, Issue 3, 3 December 2007, Pages 387–392

Grases F, Melero G, Costa-Bauzá A, Prieto R, March JG. Urolithiasis and phytotherapy. Int Urol Nephrol. 1994;26(5):507-11.

Féher J, Lengyel G. Silymarin in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases and primary liver cancer. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2012 Jan;13(1):210-7.

Turgut F, Bayrak O, Catal F, Bayrak R, Atmaca AF, Koc A, Akbas A, Akcay A, Unal D. Antioxidant and protective effects of silymarin on ischemia and reperfusion injury in the kidney tissues of rats. Int Urol Nephrol. 2008;40(2):453-60. doi: 10.1007/s11255-008-9365-4.

El-Gengaihi SE, Hassan EE, Hamed MA, Zahran HG, Mohammed MA. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of Physalis peruviana root as hepato-renal protective agent. J Diet Suppl. 2013 Mar;10(1):39-53. doi: 10.3109/19390211.2012.760509.

Kaur G, Athar M, Alam MS. Dietary supplementation of silymarin protects against chemically induced nephrotoxicity, inflammation and renal tumor promotion response. Invest New Drugs. 2010 Oct;28(5):703-13. doi: 10.1007/s10637-009-9289-6. Epub 2009 Jul 10.

Singh NP, Ganguli A, Prakash A. Drug-induced kidney diseases. J Assoc Physicians India. 2003 Oct;51:970-9.

Locatelli F, Pozzoni P, Del Vecchio L. Renal manifestations in the metabolic syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006 Apr;17(4 Suppl 2):S81-5.

Steven Gabardi, Kristin Munz, and Catherine Ulbricht. A Review of Dietary Supplement–Induced Renal Dysfunction. CJASN July 2007 2): (4) 757-765

Pietro Cirillo,Waichi Sato, Sirirat Reungjui, Marcelo Heinig, Michael Gersch, Yuri Sautin,Takahiko Nakagawa and Richard J. Johnson. Uric Acid, the Metabolic Syndrome, and Renal Disease. JASN December 2006 vol. 17 no. 12 suppl 3 S165-S168

Aaron Lohr. BPA Exposure Effects May Last for Generations. 6.15.2012.

Julia Layton. How Bottled Water Works.

EWG’s Bottled Water Scorecard, 2011. January 25, 2012.

Rowan Hooper. Top 11 compounds in US drinking water. 15:38 12 January 2009.   

Basic Information about the Radionuclides Rule by EPA.GOV.

Sara Sciammacco. EWG’s New Online Water Filter Buying Guide. Environmental Working Group.2.27.13.

Dusty Horwitt. Is Natural Gas Toxic in Water? Environmental Working group. 3.19.13.

Sara Sciammacco 100 million+ Americans Exposed to Forgotten Toxics in Drinking Water. Enivornmental Working Group. 2.27.13.

Edgar R Miller III, Stephen P Juraschek, Lawrence J Appel, Madhavi Madala, Cheryl AM Anderson, Joachim Bleys, and Eliseo Guallar.The effect of n–3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on urine protein excretion and kidney function: meta-analysis of clinical trials Am J Clin Nutr June 2009 89: 1937-1945; First published online April 29, 2009. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.26867

Rainer Düsing1, Ansgar Struck1, Bernd O Göbel1, Burkhard Weisser1 and Hans Vetter1

1Medizinische Universitäts-Poliklinik Bonn. Effects of n-3 fatty acids on renal function and renal prostaglandin E metabolism. Kidney International (1990) 38, 315–319; doi:10.1038/ki.1990.202

Stevan P Tofovic, Curtis K Kost Jr, Edwin K Jackson and Sheldon I Bastacky. Long-term caffeine consumption exacerbates renal failure in obese, diabetic, ZSF1 (fa-facp) rats. Center for Clinical Pharmacology, Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology and Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.19 November 2001.

Massey LK, Sutton RA. Acute caffeine effects on urine composition and calcium kidney stone risk in calcium stone formers. J Urol. 2004 Aug;172(2):555-8.

Saldana TM, Basso O, Darden R, Sandler DP. Carbonated beverages and chronic kidney disease. Epidemiology. 2007 Jul;18(4):501-6.

Julie Lin, and Gary C. Curhan Associations of Sugar and Artificially Sweetened Soda with Albuminuria and Kidney Function Decline in Women- Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. Renal Division, MRB-4, Brigham and Women’s Hospital. CJASN January 2011 vol. 6 no. 1 160-166

Rodgers A. Effect of cola consumption on urinary biochemical and physicochemical risk factors associated with calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, South Africa. Urol Res. 1999;27(1):77-81.

Allon N. Friedman, MD. High-protein diets: Potential effects on the kidney in renal health and disease

American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 44, Issue 6, December 2004, Pages 950–962

Gary C. Curhan, Walter C. Willett, Eric B. Rimm, and Meir J. Stampfer. A Prospective Study of Dietary Calcium and Other Nutrients and the Risk of Symptomatic Kidney Stones. N Engl J Med 1993; 328:833-838 March 25, 1993

Goodall, Harry W. The Favorable Influence of Periods of a Protein Free Diet in Chronic Nephritis. Boston Med Surgical Journal. 1913; 168:760-766 May 22, 1913

Boston Med Surg J 1913; 168:760-766May 22, 1913DOI: 10.1056/NEJM191305221682104

New England Journal of MedicinJianyouGuo, TongjunLiu, LinnaHan and Yongmei Liu.The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism. Nutrition & Metabolism 2009

Cuina Wang, Tiehua Zhang, Jun Liu, Shuang Lu, Cheng Zhang, Erlei Wang, Zuozhao Wang, Yan Zhang, Jingbo Liu. Subchronic toxicity study of corn silk with rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 137, Issue 1, 1 September 2011, Pages 36–43

D.V.O. Velazquez, H.S. Xavier, J.E.M. Batista, C. de Castro-Chaves. Zea mays L. extracts modify glomerular function and potassium urinary excretion in conscious rats. Phytomedicine, Volume 12, Issue 5, 16 May 2005, Pages 363–369

(National Institute of Health (NIH), National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), “Kidney and Urological Diseases Statistics for the United States,” NIH Publication No. 11-3895, Aug 2011, available at

Murugaiyah V., et al., “Antihyperuricemic lignans from the leaves of Phyllanthus niruri,” Planta Med. (2006) Nov, 72(14): 1262-7

Micali, S., et al., “Can Phyllanthus niruri affect the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stones? A randomized, prospective, long-term study,” J. Urol. (2006) Sep, 176(3): 1020-2

Barros, M. E., et al., “Effect of extract of Phyllanthus niruri on crystal deposition in experimental urolithiasis,” Urol. Res. (2006) Aug, 34(6): 351-7; Nishiura, J. L., et al., “Phyllanthus niruri normalizes elevated urinary calcium levels in calcium stone forming (CSF) patients,” Urol. Res. (2004) Oct, 32(5): 362-6

Barros, M. E., et al., “Effects of an aqueous extract from Phyllanthus niruri on calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro,” Urol. Res. (2003) 30(6): 374-9.)

Maksimovic, Z., Dobric, S., Kovacevic, N., and Milovanovic, Z., “Diuretic activity of Maydis stigma extract in rats,” Pharmazie (2004) Dec; 59(12): 967-71.

Clare, B. A., Conroy, R. S., and Spelman, K., “The diuretic effect in human subjects of an extract of Taraxacum officinale folium over a single day,” J. Ahern. Complement Med. (2009) Aug, 15(8): 929-34; and Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products, “Community Herbal Monograph on Taraxacum Officinale, Weber ex Wigg., Radix Cum Herba,” European Medicines Agency, London, 2009.

BHMA 1983 British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, BHMA, Bournemouth; and Grieve, M., A Modern Herbal: The Medicinal, Culinary, Cosmetic, and Economic Properties, Cultivation and FolkLore of Herbs, Grasses, Fungi, Shrubs, and Trees with All Their Modern Scientific Uses, Reprint of the 1931 ed., C.F. Leyel, Ed., London, 1985.

Lemus, I. et al., “Diuretic activity of an Equisetum bogotense tea (Platero herb): evaluation in healthy volunteers,” J. Ethnopharmacol. (1996) 54:55-8).

Li, W. et al., “Total synthesis of adicardin,” J. Asian Nat. Prod. Res. (2009) Aug, 11(8): 720-7.

Blumenthal, M., Goldberg, A., and Brinckman, J., Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs, (Newton, Mass.: Integrative Medicine Communications, 2000), pp. 218-20.

Yarnell, E., “Botanical medicines for the urinary tract,” World J. Urol. (2002) Nov, 20(5): 285-93, Epub 2002 Oct 17.

Guarnieri, A., Chiarini, A., Burnelli, S., and Amorosa, M., “Mucilage of Althaea officinalis,” Farmaco Prat. (1974) Feb, 29(2): 83-91.

Dayanand Dubey, K., Balamurugan, R. C., Agrawal, Rahul Verma, and Rahi, Jain, “Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic and Hydromethanolic Extract of Sweet Orange Peels,” Recent Research in Science and Technology (2011) 3(11): 22-25.

Blumenthal, M., Busse, W. R., and Goldberg, A., et al. (eds), The Complete German Commission E Monographs, 1st ed., Austin, Tex.: American Botanical Council, 1998

Schelz, Z., Molnar, J., and Hohmann, J., “Antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils,” Fitoterapia (2006) Jun, 77(4): 279-85, Epub 2006 May 11

Head, K. A., “Natural approaches to prevention and treatment of infections of the lower urinary tract,” Ahern. Med. Rev. (2008) Sep, 13(3):227-44; and Larsson, B., Jonasson, A., and Fianu, S., “Prophylactic effect of UVA-E in women with recurrent cystitis: A preliminary report,” Current Therapeutic Research (1993) 53(4): 441-43.

Sawsan Ibrahim KreydiyyehaJulnar Ustab. Diuretic effect and mechanism of action of parsley. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Volume 79, Issue 3, March 2002, Pages 353–357

 Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Effect of blackcurrant-, cranberry- and plum juice consumption on risk factors associated with kidney stone formation.

E Jéquier and F Constant. Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration: Water as an essential nutrient. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 115-123 (February 2010)

Madeo J, Zubair A, Marianne F. A review on the role of quinones in renal disorders.Department of Medicine, Nassau University Medical Center, 2201 Hempstead Turnpike, East Meadow, NY 11554 USA.

Marta González-Castejón, Francesco Visioli, Arantxa Rodriguez-Casado. Diverse biological activities of dandelion. Volume 70, Issue 9,pages 534–547, September 2012

Kieley S, Dwivedi R, Monga M. Ayurvedic medicine and renal calculi. Department of Urologic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Beaux D, Fleurentin J, Mortier F. Effect of extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth, Hieracium pilosella L., Sambucus nigra L. and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. in rats. Phytother Res. 1999;13(3):222-225.

Chauhan B, Yu C, Krantis A, Scott I, Arnason JT, Marles RJ, Foster BC. In vitro activity of uva-ursi against cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and P-glycoprotein. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;85(11):1099-107.

Grases F, Melero G, Costa-Bauza A, Prieto R, March JG Urolithiasis and phytotherapy. Int Urol Nephrol. 1994;26(5):507-511.

Head KA. Natural approachs to prevention and treatment of infections of the lower urinary tract. Altern Med Rev. 2008;13(3):227-44.

Larsson B, Jonasson A, Fianu S. Prophylactic effect of UVA-E in women with recurrent cystitis: a preliminary report. Curr Ther Res. 1993;53:441-3.

Matsuda H, Nakamura S, Tanaka T, Kubo M. [Pharmacological studies on leaf of arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. V. Effects of water extract from arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. (Bearberry leaf) on the antiallergic anti-inflammatory activities of dexamethasone ointment.] Yakugaku Zasshi–J Pharm Soc Jpn. 1992;112(9):673-677.

Matsuda H, Nakata H, Tanaka T, Kubo M. [Pharmacological study on Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. II. Combined effects of arbutin and prednisolone or dexamethazone on immuno-inflammation] Yakugaku Zasshi. 1990;110(1):68-76.

Matsuda H, Tanaka T, Kubo M. [Pharmacological studies on leaf of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.). Spreng. III. Combined effect of arbutin and indomethacin on immuno-inflammation.] Yakugaku Zasshi. 1991;111(4-5):253-258.

Parejo I, Viladomat F, Bastida J, Codina C. A single extraction step in the quantitative analysis of arbutin in bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography. Phytochem Anal. 2001;12(5):336-339.

Rakel D. Rakel: Integrative Medicine, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2008;24.

Rotblatt M, Ziment I. Evidence-Based Herbal Medicine. Philadelphia, Penn:Hanley & Belfus, Inc. 2002:351-354.

Shimizu M, Shiota S, Mizushima T, et al. Marked potentiation of activity of beta-lactams against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by corilagin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45(11):3198-3201.

Auerbach: Wilderness Medicine. 5th ed. New York, NY: Mosby; 2007.

Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications; 2002:78-83.

Cho SY,Park JY, Park EM, et al. Alternation of hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by supplementation of dandelion water extract. Clin Chim Acta. 2002;317(1-2):109-117.

Clare BA, Conroy RS, Spelman K. The diuretic effect in human subjects of an extract of Taraxacum officinale folium over a single day. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Aug;15(8):929-34.

Davies MG, Kersey PJ. Contact allergy to yarrow and dandelion. Contact Dermatitis. 1986;14 (ISS 4):256-7.

Hu C, Kitts DD. Antioxidant, prooxidant, and cytotoxic activities of solvent-fractionated dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extracts in vitro. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(1):301-10.

Hudec J, et al. Antioxidant capacity changes and phenolic profile of Echinacea purpea, nettle (Urtica dioica L.), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) after application of polyamine and phenolic biosynthesis regulators. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55(14):5689-96.

Jeon HJ, Kang HJ, Jung HJ, Kang YS, Lim CJ, Kim YM, Park EH. Anti-inflammatory activity of Taraxacum officinale. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jan 4;115(1):82-8.

Kim HM, Shin HY, Lim KH, el al., Taraxacum officinale inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from rat astrocytes. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2000;22(3):519-30.

Kisiel W, Barszcz B. Further sesquiterpenoids and phenolics from Taraxacum officinale. Fitoterapia. 2000;71(3):269-73.

LaValle JB, Krinsky DL, Hawkins EB, et al. Natural Therapeutics Pocket Guide. Hudson, OH:LexiComp; 2000: 420-421.

Mascolo N, et al. Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. Phytotherapy Res. 1987:28-29.

Miller L. Herbal Medicinals: Selected Clinical Considerations Focusing on Known or Potential Drug-Herb Interactions. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:2200-2211.

Petlevski R, Hadzija M, Slijepcevic M, Juretic D. Effect of ‘antidiabetis’ herbal preparation on serum glucose and fructosamine in NOD mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;75(2-3):181-184.

Schutz K, Carle R, Schieber A. Taraxacum–a review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;107(3):313-23.

Sigstedt SC, Hooten CJ, Callewaert MC, Jenkins AR, et al. Evaluation of aqueous extracts of Taraxacum officinale on growth and invasion of breast and prostate cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2008 May;32(5):1085-90.

Swanston-Flatt SK, Day C, Flatt PR, Gould BJ, Bailey CJ. Glycaemic effects of traditional European plant treatments for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice. Diabetes Res. 1989;10(2):69-73.

Sweeney B, Vora M, Ulbricht C, Basch E. Evidence-based systematic review of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) by Natural Standard Research Collaboration. J Herb Pharmacother. 2005;5(1):79-93.

Trojanova I, Rada V, Kokoska L, Vlkova E. The bifidogenic effect of Taraxacum officinale root. Fitoterapia. 2004;75(7-8):760-3.

Zhi X, Honda K, Ozaki K, Misugi T, Sumi T, Ishiko O. Dandelion T-1 extract up-regulates reproductive hormone receptor expression in mice. Int J Mol Med. 2007;20(3):287-92.

No Comments

Leave a Reply

Content Protected Using Blog Protector By: PcDrome.